This Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers (ICS) course aims to ensure a thorough knowledge and understanding of Liner business.
Thoroughly understand the characteristics of liner services and their
difference from the tramp trades.
Understand the Liner Trades of the world: container, ro-ro and
residual break-bulk, their trade routes, ports and relative
Be aware of the basic differences between east/west and north/south
Understand the different service options, including Round the World
(RTW), pendulum, hub and spoke and end-to-end.
Thoroughly understand the different types of container ships,
including cellular/non-cellular, post Panamax, hatchless, feeders,
’fast ships’ and other predicted developments.
Understand the types of ro-ro ships, including passenger and freight
ferries, deep sea ro-ro/containerships, freight ro-ro ships and ro-ro
ships for specialist traffic eg forest products.
Understand the types and roles of other vessels used in liner trades,
including refrigerated ships (reefers), barge carriers (LASH) and
general purpose tween deck vessels.
Understand terminology of all measurements of tonnages and capacity
and dimensions, including pseudo-tonnages – NT and GT. Actual
tonnages – deadweight (dwat and dwcc) displacement (total and light).
Capacities – bale-cubic and grain cubic, lane metres, TEU.
Understand the main types and use of on-board cargo handling
equipment, the provision of ro-ro access, hatches and hold layouts,
including specialised configurations.
Understand the types of commodities usually handled by liners and
their methods of carriage, including containerised, palletised, heavy
lifts, out of gauge and LCL/break-bulk. Understand the effect of
stowage factors. Be aware of the importance of adequate packing.
Thoroughly understand the principles of IMO regulations concerning
dangerous and polluting cargoes, including the class structure.
Understand port and terminal operations, including inland terminals,
their layout, cargo handling systems and equipment.
Be aware of other port facilities and value-added services.
Thoroughly understand the structure, management, technical,
operations, commercial functions of liner operating companies.
Understand marketing and sales requirements and techniques.
Be aware of the similarities and differences between in-house or
Understand the form of agreement used between liner operators and
independent agencies (FONASBA Standard Liner and General Agency
Agreement). Be aware of the role of hinterland sales agents and sub-
Understand the ship husbandry and port agency elements in liner
Understand the liner agent’s relationship with shippers, forwarders,
NVOCs and logistics operators.
Thoroughly understand the basic concept of containerisation and its
development into intermodalism.
Thoroughly understand the characteristics, dimensions and purpose of
different container types.
Understand the terminology of containerisation used to describe such
things as Full Container Loads (FCL), Less than Container Loads
(LCL), house-to-house or port-to-port etc. Be aware of differences in
terminology in different parts of the world.
Understand the need for and function of non-port depots, including
Inland Customs Clearance Depots (ICDs), inland cargo-handling depots
and container storage depots.
Understand the role, in intermodal transport, of feeder services;
inland haulage (road, rail and barge); carrier/merchant haulage.
Thoroughly understand the methods of container management, owning
versus leasing, repairs.
Understand interchange procedures, tracking and control systems.
Be aware of ’grey box’ interchange concepts.
Understand the manner in which operators strive for economies of
scale and market share.
Understand economic trends: balancing supply and demand, capacity
Thoroughly understand the rationale for alliances, consortia and
capacity management agreements, their similarities and differences.
Thoroughly understand the role and function of conferences.
Be aware of statutory control and regulation, including Federal
Maritime Commission (USA), Competition Directorate (Europe).
Thoroughly understand the paramount importance of bills of lading in
the liner trades, their function and their role in international
Understand the effect of bill of lading legislation: UK Carriage of
Goods by Sea Act 1992 or equivalent national legislation.
Thoroughly understand the practical impact of Hague/Hague-Visby &
Hamburg Rules and the differences between them.
Be aware of rules for combined transport, including UNCTAD/ICC.
Understand the concept of ’clean’ and ’dirty’ B/Ls.
Understand the use of letters of indemnity, their misuse and the
avoidance of fraud.
Thoroughly understand the different types of B/L including Ocean,
Through, Combined Transport, Waybills and understand the major and
usual clauses including Clause Paramount, Himalaya, identity of
carrier and protection clauses.
Understand the importance of endorsements on the back of B/Ls.
Understand other documentation, including Booking notes, Shipping
notes, Manifests, Dangerous cargo declarations.
Be aware of regulatory control of imports and exports, including
customs procedures and licensing.
Understand the vital role of computers in liner trades, including
enquiry and booking systems, cargo tracing systems and port community
computer systems, and the impact of paperless trading.
Thoroughly understand the importance of pricing management, including
maximising contribution, revenue or market share, marginal pricing of
Understand the concept of formal tariff structures, including
commodity, weight or volume; advantages and drawbacks and its
relevance in contemporary container transport.
Be aware of adjustment factors including currency fluctuation (CAF),
bunker charges (BAF), war risks and congestion.
Understand charges other than freight, including terminal handling,
LCL charges, container demurrage etc.
Understand methods of payment in the sale of goods.
Thoroughly understand the impact of Documentary Credits and ICC
Uniform Custom and Practice on shipping documentation.
Understand the different types of contracts in the sale of goods
Understand Carriers’ and Merchants’ responsibilities and limitations
Be aware of the procedure for cargo claims, including the role and
responsibilities of the parties.
Understand the reason and the procedure for Noting Protest.
Be aware of the carrier’s insurance arrangements, including hull and
machinery insurance, P & I Associations.
Thoroughly understand the basic concept of General Average and
documentation it involves at discharging port.
Thoroughly understand the liabilities of the agent to its principal,
the agent’s authority including binding the principal, breach of
warranty of authority, fiduciary duty.
Understand the problems arising in respect of ship and port security
and the implementation of the ISPS Code.